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Version: 5.2 (upcoming)

Insert Data into the Database

The Query

Joomla's database querying has changed since the new Joomla Framework was introduced "query chaining" is now the recommended method for building database queries (although string queries are still supported).

Query chaining refers to a method of connecting a number of methods, one after the other, with each method returning an object that can support the next method, improving readability and simplifying code.

To obtain a new instance of the DatabaseQuery class we use the DatabaseDriver getQuery method:

use Joomla\CMS\Factory;

// When used in the component's Model
$db = $this->getDatabase();

// When used in other places
$db = Factory::getContainer()->get('DatabaseDriver');

$query = $db->getQuery(true);
Developer Note

Do NOT use the following Joomla 3 method anymore because it is deprecated:
$db = Factory::getDbo();

The DatabaseDriver::getQuery takes an optional argument, $new, which can be true or false (the default being false).

To query our data source we can call a number of DatabaseQuery methods; these methods encapsulate the data source's query language (in most cases SQL), hiding query-specific syntax from the developer and increasing the portability of the developer's source code.

Some of the more frequently used methods include; select, from, join, where and order. There are also methods such as insert, update and delete for modifying records in the data store. By chaining these and other method calls, you can create almost any query against your data store without compromising portability of your code.

Inserting a Record

Using SQL via the Query Object

The DatabaseQuery class provides a number of methods for building insert queries, the most common being insert, columns and values.

// Get a db connection.
$db = Factory::getContainer()->get('DatabaseDriver');

// Create a new query object.
$query = $db->getQuery(true);

// Insert columns.
$columns = array('user_id', 'profile_key', 'profile_value', 'ordering');

// Prepare the insert query.
$query
->insert($db->quoteName('#__user_profiles'))
->columns($db->quoteName($columns))
->values(':user_id, :profile_key, :profile_value, :ordering');

// Bind values
$query
->bind(':user_id', 1001, Joomla\Database\ParameterType::INTEGER)
->bind(':profile_key', 'custom.message')
->bind(':profile_value', 'Inserting a record using insert()')
->bind(':ordering', 1, Joomla\Database\ParameterType::INTEGER);

// Set the query using our newly populated query object and execute it.
$db->setQuery($query);

$db->execute();

Using an Object

The DatabaseDriver class also provides a convenient method for saving an object directly to the database allowing us to add a record to a table without writing a single line of SQL.

// Create and populate an object.
$profile = new stdClass();
$profile->user_id = 1001;
$profile->profile_key='custom.message';
$profile->profile_value='Inserting a record using insertObject()';
$profile->ordering=1;

// Insert the object into the user profile table.
$result = Factory::getContainer()->get('DatabaseDriver')->insertObject('#__user_profiles', $profile);

Notice here that we do not need to escape the table name; the insertObject method does this for us.

The insertObject method will throw a error if there is a problem inserting the record into the database table.

If you are providing a unique primary key value (as in the example above), it is highly recommended that you select from the table by that column value before attempting an insert.

If you are simply inserting the next row in your table (i.e. the database generates a primary key value), you can specify the primary key column-name as the third parameter of the insertObject() method and the method will update the object with the newly generated primary key value.

For example, given the following statement:

$result = $dbconnect->insertObject('#__my_table', $object, 'primary_key');

After execution, $object->primary_key will be updated with the newly inserted row's primary key value.

Developer Note

Set $object->primary_key to null or 0 (zero) before inserting.